The traditional values and beliefs of the African that stem from his culture include polygamy, belief in one supreme God as well as many other minor deities, love of children, music, dancing, respect for old age and authority, belief in a future life, marriage and funeral celebrations. Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom. Social Change with respect to Culture and Original Nature. 1922. The most significant thing about the traditional society is that the political hierarchy begins with the family. While material culture refers to the visible tactile objects which man is able to manufacture for the purposes of human survival; non-material culture comprises of the norms and mores of the people. African traditional religion possesses the concept of a Supreme Being who is considered omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent too. Mothers of twins were not welcome and were regarded as the harbinger of evil, hence unacceptable. These instances show that marriage practices and the cultural values that are held about them are due and in urgent need for revision in some African societies. Let us illustrate with an example: the new yam festival as practised in Ibibio land has a way of encouraging hard work and checking famine. [ Links ], Taylor, E.B. It does appear that while material culture can be studied and evaluated under the aesthetic aspect of value theory, non-material culture can equally be studied and evaluated under the ethical aspect of value theory. Each person, as we could see, has some sense of values and there is no society without some value system (Idang 2007: 4). The full study of culture in all its vastness and dimensions belongs to the discipline known as anthropology, which studies human beings and takes time to examine their characteristics and their relationship to their environments. The Western model of beauty is not like this. Within this context, "change" means a significant alteration or marked departure from that which existed before. African-American cultural history. Culture has been classified into its material and non-material aspects. Therefore, negative and harmful traditional practices that dehumanise people and portray them as unimproved and backward people without future, should as a matter of urgency be discarded since culture is an adaptive system together with values that play a central role in giving the society its uniqueness. Based on cultural considerations, some forms of behaviour, actions and conduct are approved while others are widely disapproved of. The main difference between values and beliefs is that values are principles, ideals or standards of behavior while beliefs are convictions that we generally accept to be true. Explaining how culture is passed on as a generational heritage, Fafunwa (1974: 48) writes that: The child just grows into and within the cultural heritage of his people. The task: to read African Cultural Values, by Kwame Gyekye, and then to devour the very hefty A History of Indigenous Slavery in Ghana, by Akosua Adoma Perbi, ultimately digesting all this new information into lessons to add to the curriculum of the twice-weekly Cross Culture class.. This shows that the African aesthetic value and sense of what is beautiful is markedly different. Indeed culture needs to change; which wants to remain static and resistant to change would not be a living culture". This community also tends to believe in God with absolute certainty and believe in miracles3. The diviners, sorcerers and soothsayers help to streamline human behaviour in the society and people are afraid to commit offences because of the fear of being exposed by the diviners and sorcerers. The Southern People of Nigeria: A Sketch of their History, Ethnology and Languages. This is the defining characteristic of African religion wherever it is practiced. Even though there are as many definitions of culture as there are writers, there is an element of similarity that runs through them all. The introduction of currency along with imported material artefacts generated or at least accentuated acquisitive propensities and profit orientation among the people, thereby gradually articulating social inequality based on purely economic criteria. It is always changed and modified by man through contacts with and absorption of other peoples' cultures, a process known as assimilation". African culture, therefore, refers to the whole lot of African heritage. The values and morals are abstract and invisible (non-material) such as respect, love, marriage, taboos, laws, hard work, kindness and worship. 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